绝对贫困有时可以被称为生存性贫困，这是因为它是对人类基本需求的判断，与生存的每一天有关，同时保持健康和身体的效率。哥本哈根发展问题世界首脑会议将绝对贫困定义为:“一种严重剥夺基本人类需求的状况，包括粮食、安全饮用水、卫生设施、保健、住房、教育和信息。它不仅取决于收入，还取决于获得社会服务的机会。他在1901年发表了他的结论。他是第一个想出“贫困线”这个词的人。贫困线是指每个家庭每周至少需要一笔钱来保证健康生活的必需品。维持这一生存水平所需的资金包括燃料、租金、营养、衣服和住房以及按家庭比例改变的个人用品。这项研究的结论是，33%的人口生活在贫困中。(Haralambos, et al.， 2007)他将他的概念写进了《人类对劳动的需求》和《商业中的人类因素》。他们专注于雇主和雇员的要求之间的关系。它侧重于良好的实践，包括工资、工作时间、工作环境以及员工的福利和职位。虽然Rowntree是第一个承认福利国家需要改变的人，但他的理论也受到了批评。他的理论包含了对什么是生活必需品的判断，并且采纳了一个不浪费的预算。不浪费预算的想法不允许人为的错误，事故是不可避免的这一理论不允许个人放弃“基本的”并能够取代它。
Absolute poverty can sometimes be called subsistence poverty this is because it is the judgement of basic human requirements in relation to surviving day to day, while maintaining health and physical efficiency (Haralambos, et al., 2007).The Copenhagen world summit on development defined absolute poverty as: ‘‘a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to social services Rowntree is well-known for the study of poverty in York. He published his conclusions in 1901. He was the first to think up the term ‘the poverty line’. The poverty line was the idea of a minimum weekly amount of money required to allow families to ensure the necessaries of a healthy life. The money required for this subsistence level of survival included fuel, rent, nutrition, clothing and house hold and personal items where altered to the family proportions. this study concluded that 33 percent of the population lived in poverty. (Haralambos, et al., 2007) He wrote his concepts down in ‘The Human Needs of Labour’ and ‘The Human Factor in Business’. They concentrate on the relationship between the requirements of the employer and the employee. It focused on good practice including salaries, working hours, working environments, and employees’ well-being and position. Although Rowntree was the first to acknowledge that changes needed to be made in welfare state his theories had criticisms. His theory contains judgements about what amount to the essentials of life and that it adopts a no waste budget. The idea of a no waste budget doesn’t allow for human error, accidents are inevitable this theory doesn’t allow for an individual to drop a ‘essential’ and be able to replace it.
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