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Produce a log or a reflective journal which shows:
An analysis of the principles of business change and business process re-engineering, and how they relate to your organisation
A description and evaluation of the concept and application of workflow patterns and usability testing in your organisation
An evaluation of three modelling tools used by you, and evidence of having tested a proposed processes through a modelling exercise
A list and analysis of factors to be taken into account when evaluating the effectiveness of business processes
Within our pre-school we use processes daily and are always looking to improve our setting and test processes. Business change is used within our pre-school to look at where we are, where we want to be, how we are going to get there, why we want to change and what measures will we need in order to succeed. I am in the process at present of completing an SDP, an SDP is a strategical development plan for the next coming year within pre-school, we look at what we want to achieve at pre-school and how we are going to achieve it. Looking at change management principles within an organisation can help you to support the people effected by change. During any kind of process communication must be used at all times in order to succeed.
Business process re-engineering is looking at your workforces and ensuring that your work force optimises the resources that you have available to you. Re-engineering is the redesigns of work flows within an organisation. When we look at business re-engineering we look to see how to get the chosen task done in the least amount of time, an example of this is Safeguarding. Safeguarding within childcare is paramount with everything you do the process constantly needs to re-engineered due to current changes and legislation, an example of this is, recently asking parents for permission or consent at our nativity play and also asking for no photos to appear on social media sites due to children’s identities being revelled. We then had to re-engineer our current set up to ensure this announcement was put in to protect the children.
Business re-engineering is an important part of rethinking and redesigning during the business process. Business improvement looks at key areas for change such a performance and then sets about to take drastic measures to enhance, speed, profitability, training, cost control and efficiency are measured.
Workflow patterns are specialised forms of design pattern for different perspectives for process aware information systems. Work flow patterns can be described as independent, interdependent or sequential. A method that can be used for testing these patterns is through usability testing, using real users and being observed by a researcher to see where they encounter problems. Scenario testing is a type of testing that can be used to test a product or process to highlight any problems they may encounter, the advantage of using this type of testing is that its real people being used for real situations or tasks and feedback can be given before a process is put into place, an disadvantage of this is that it’s not a true real life situation so would the feedback be any use to us. Another type of testing is hallway testing, using large places to set up and stop people asking them to give feedback on a product, this type of method has an advantage of the people being random so it’s very real like and people are put on the spot which could usually be very helpful and should reveal the truth, gaining better results. A disadvantage of this type of testing is that people are usually in a rush and will not want to stop to give feedback, it becomes a hard method by trying to attract people’s attention and get some results.
At pre-school I use usability testing by using trial periods of new business process ideas. When I first started at pre-school I changed the settings routine by adapting free flow play, we trialled it and spent a lot of time talking about it, looking at any weakness and talking about the benefits, the advantage of trial systems is that its testing the water before you make this change, it usually highlights any areas in need of tweaking. A disadvantage of this is that sometimes it takes time to see a huge problem and by then it is too late and in pre-school sometimes there is no room for error, an example of this could be getting the ratios wrong by trialling a new process if this happened we would be in big trouble and could cause unnecessary stress and accidents on children in the setting. In our setting with
Modelling types that I have used to look at business process and change are; brain storming and critical path an analysis. Brains storming allows a lot ideas to be involved when creating a change or business process and allows you to put down the unthinkable, however sometimes this creates a bigger picture that has more problems when we only need a quick brainstorm to address an idea or change.
A critical path allows help to plan all the tasks that must be completed as part of the process. An advantage of this is that it has clear steps and addresses the tasks that need to be achieved, although a disadvantage of this is that you have to complete the steps in order, so step 3 can’t be completed before step 2.
There are many factors to consider when evaluating the effectiveness of a business processes. Are the processes more efficient and effective? Are they helping improve our organisations performance? Is it helping me be better connected with internal and internal customers and stakeholders? Is this new way more flexible and easier? Are the helping our business objectives?
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创造力与因果循环 Creativity and Causal Loop
What is creativity? In class, we discussed this very question, and we learn that researchers studied creativity in the perspectives of creativity in geniuses and people with outstanding talents; while, on process-orientation approach, viewed creativity as a property of a thought process that can be acquired and improved through instruction and practice (Sulaiman，J., 2017). Creativity involves the use of intuition,ingenuity, insight, rather than narrowing down to“one best decision”,it is opening tocreate new possibilities, manyalternatives, outgrowth of training and experience. In modern life, people face problems in their jobs all the time,meanwhile, they lose their ability to solve the problems in creative ways due to the answers from work experiences and education that they need to solve the problems in the way they already knew. Those are the creativity blocks(Sulaiman，J., 2017). Creative block is your worst enemy, and it can come from almost anywhere. It caused the failure of creativity or innovation. We look at how to treat the problem areas, and get your ideas moving. So, when it comes to a problem that needs innovative solutions, most of us can’t really do a creative thinking, and furthermore to figure out a creative idea. To define whether an innovation is unsuccessful or failed, we need to figure out whether it provided a good influence on its user or make its innovator better in his health situation, reputation, wealth, or any other aspects in the time when the innovation has been created. In this paper, I will discuss the concepts, purpose and applications of the methods which were used in the creativity that is not successful.
Main Body 正文
As all we know, tire is an unmissable part of all kinds of vehicle, and vulcanized rubber is the basic material for the tire production. But to the innovator of this certain industrial material, Charles Goodyear (1800-1860),（Zumdahl, S.,&Zumdahl, S., 2014)to him, his innovation was not very successful: at his time, rubber is a material that is not stabilized when the temperature changed (Haven, K., and Berg, R., 1999). So Charles wanted to find a way to stabilize the rubber so it can endure the temperature changes while keep its shape (Hosler, D., Burkett, S. L., and Tarkanian, M. J, 1999). But without the help of specialized knowledge in science or chemistry, he was only able to try all the ingredient he could image, and spend massive time in his experiment (Iles, G., 1912). Although he finally figured out the right chemical process to produce stabilized rubber-vulcanized rubber, his innovation didn’t have a well-sold chance to him, and it actually “dead” at the investment and incubation approaches to creativity, since he was unable to afford the investment and he couldn’t payback the debts for the investment, so he hadbankruptcy and dead in prison at the end. Sadly, his name had been used by his debtors as the tire product brand to make and sell the tire and rubber products that had been innovated by Charles to become one of the top three tire brand all around the world after Charles dead. There are 5 types of creativity blocks in Charles’ case.
Constancy blocks constrain the way problems are defined that define a problem in one way and pursue only that definition to reach a solution. In this case, at the time Charles had no idea on which receipt should be used to get rubber a stable status that allows the rubber to insist the temperature changes before its boiling spot, so he kept adding new ingredients into rubber to try his luck without certain planed ideas. He only had very a few number of solutions perceived to be relevant, so he could just try millions of receipts to find what he needed, which required plenty of time, money, technique, manpower, and passion (McGuinness,M., 2017). This type of block makes the biggest obstacle to the innovation activity especially when there is no clue of what should to be done, and this obstacle normally dedicated to whether a innovation can be successful or not at the end, since the innovator has no idea nor direction of how to get the answers, the innovator has totry just everything he/she could try, and by lucky, he/she can find a clue, and may or may not get the results they need. In a conclusion, this block is every innovator need to face and solve on the very most. Like if the direction is wrong, then no matter how much effort the innovator put into his experiment, he/she will not get what he seemed to.
Since Charles was not a chemist or a scientist, and what he desired to accomplish was fit in chemist or scientist’s job description, the specialized education in chemistry and science would probably the best shots to his dream. The knowledge in these science fields would help him to broad his view in solving creativity problems and shorting the whole processes of research and incubation in next step of creativity approaches.
2.Mental obstacles constrain the way
In Charles ‘family, his father and grandfather were all famous innovator, so the light circles on their heads certainly made Charles a burden, that he must become someone successful in innovation creation. Charles was not a chemist or a scientist, If he don’t have this burden, then he may start his career in other field, like business, and may innovate something that suit the time and most important suit his characteristics, then he may get a better chance to have a successful life, live longer, and become richer. That’s why we can always see a poor kid get rich at end, but a rich kid gets poor finally. Burden makes people doing things they don’t want to do, and the thing may not be the right thing to do (‘Charles Goodyear’. 2017).
This one is tricky. Normally it is hard to figure out the solutions by the people themselves, since it is related to psychological and mental status. But a lateral thinking may solve the problem (Cooper,B.B., 2014).
Charles had used all his money and debts to innovate the vulcanized rubber, which but he can’t afford the scale of the investment, and at that time, he can’t get his investment back. In the time he created the vulcanized rubber, the rubber industry was struggled all around the world, due to the unstable status of rubber that become softer in warm weather and get harder in cold temperatures, in short, rubber has not been widely used in that time, nor customer-like product, so he hasn’t get investment repay quickly enough to pay back his debts.
Poverty is very hard to deal since there are a bunch of millionaires with a millions way to get rich, but there’s no such a way to extinguish poverty. Hard working on making money, saving money, and constraining the use of money only to those necessary spending may help a bit, but no promise. Stop the blinded business expending or investment, and make sure each penny spend on the investment are well-thought and wisely, then poverty may leave away. Those action are vital to improve the financial status of a innovator (Shoor,I., 2012).
Charles has faced various problems in various categories, like poverty, nine kids in house, law suits, debts, poor health status, and so on. It is important to solve the correct problem one by one in turns. If all these problems come together and all of those need to be solved at the same time, him would be overloaded for sure, and if overload happens, then his mental and physical ability to manipulate the problems is gone or almost gone (Goodyear, C. 1939). If he was not that high-pressured, he would figure out a better way to continue his innovation, a sustainable way that allows him to keep doing his innovation without go bankruptcy; or demonstrated it in another but suitable time, he may have a better situation.
We can always say “take easy, pal”. But when it comes to ourselves, we always try to believe that we are the superman who is unbeatable. So slow down, and deal with the problem one by one, otherwise, none (May,T., 2017).
Charles is a hard-working guy, and he focused on how to keep doing something but looking too narrowly at a problem without take a deep look at whether the direction of for solving problems is suitable or not. This habit is good for people doing those work requires low level of creativity, like moving guy, or room cleaners. But for an innovator or scientist, critical thinking and research plan are the most crucial part that should have been done at the beginning of their hardworking, since all of those results are very likely unknown and unpredictable and need huge time consuming (Goins,J., 2017). To most innovators, time is the most valuable resources and a vital requirement to their innovations, because if others innovate something earlier than theirs, then their creative project may mean nothing at all, and all effort wasted. This block was exactly the one caused him misjudged in fund management and debts management, and this misjudgment made him go bankruptcy and had cost his life at the end.
Thinking out of circle. Broaden the view of solving problems, and need to filter out inaccurate, misleading or irrelevant information, so the innovator can have less constrained and limitation on solving problems (Vengoechea,X., 2017).
In a conclusion, we can see that if an innovation activity wanted to be successful at the end, the innovator need to conquer various type of creativity blocks, and by lucky, the customers like their innovations, his/her partners didn’t betray them, and finally, their innovation get successful. If any steps went wrong, then the result may have high possibility goes fail. A strong mind and consistency mental were usually required for the great innovators. After all, people usually don’t really know what they are doing, or what they are going to do next. With the right method to think through all the creativity blocks and their corresponding solutions, we can have a better chance to be finally accomplished. And if Charles could find the solutions for his creativity blocks, he may innovate an innovation that satisfy the requirements of its customers, and be a Thomas Alva Edison-like great innovator at that time.
Explanation of future decision making of the QUINCE Company
In purpose to get a better and full understanding in the relationships between downsizing strategy and the financial pressures and therefore figure out a better solution to deal with financial woe in The QUINCE Company, we draw this casual loop diagram(Cuva,A ., 2015). In this diagram, the short-term-to-long-term consequences of downsizing causes by the financial pressure in the equipment service division of the company has been shown clearly, as same as the relationships between different variables in the loops (Businessclass, 2017). Since people of the service team and the finance teaminside the company held strong different views about their company’ strategies to deal with the financial troublethat whether downsizing strategy is the best way to deal with the crisis and further more, if the downsizing strategy is not the best solution, then which strategy/way should be chose to deal with the financial pressures currently that has been faced by the company (Sulaiman, J., 2017) The desire and urgency forced the administrators of the company must to find the appropriate way to conquer their financial crisis and hold the company together before all the company fall apart.
In this diagram, the sign of the arrow (the “+” sign for same and meanwhile the “-” for opposite) indicates whether the variable increases or decreases relative to the other variables. The sign of the loop types(the “Rs” sign for the reinforcing feedback loop, and the “Bs” sign for the balancing feedback loop, and all balancing feedback loop are goal-seeking processes) (Kim, D. H., 1992).
There are two balancing feedback loop and two reinforcing feedback loop in this diagram. The balancing feedback loop B1 shows the short-term behavior of using downsizing to combat financial pressure. While the reinforcing feed back loop R1, in other hand, draws out the long-term consequences of this behavior, showing that it actually increases financial pressures (Researchgate,2017). The balancing feedback loop B2 shows the real relationship between service personnel and the profits (Betterlesson, 2017). The reinforcing feedback loop R2 shows the possible way to increase sales (that is the advertisement), and further more the relationships between advertisements and the sales. Inside the reinforcing loop R1, the arrows with “+”sign show the possible way to increase the service quality, and the service quality variable directly increase the sales and profits consequently, and release or even deal with the financial crisis finally. And the balancing feedback loop B2 shows the possible way to increase the sales directly while has an opposite (sign “-”) affect on the profits.
The upper balancing feedback loop B1 shows the short-term behavior of downsizing without think the unintended consequences of this behavior. In short-term, downsizing strategy seems to improve profits by cutting the number of service personnel, which means fewer personnel costs and therefore fewer total costs, this consequence indeed seem to have higher profits correspondingly, and more profits to deal with financial pressure. In short-term, an increase in financial pressure directly makes the scale of downsizing of the equipment servicing division. An increase in downsizing of the division directly causes the decrease of the total number of the service personnel. A decrease in service personnel directly causes the decrease in workforce. A decrease in workforce causes decreases in service quality directly. A decrease in service quality causes directly in decreases in sales, and a decrease in sales causes the directly decreases in profits, and the decreases in profits make the financial pressure bigger directly.
But in the long-term (which has been shown in the reinforcing feedback loop R1), since the downsizing strategy decreases the number of the service personnel in the service division, which the variable is directly related to the workforce variable, since the number of service personnel decreases, and so each service personnel remain need to perform more service, and therefore the service quality for each service job decreases, and the sales decreases due to the decreases in the service quality, since the quality usually related to the CORE VALUE of a company (D,S. J., 2000), and the core value is the value that customers clarify one brand to another. Since the sales decreases, the profits go down, and the financial pressure is still there and maybe become even worse. So it is obvious that the downsizing strategy should not be taken as a long-term strategy of the company in order to deal with their financial woe. In long-term (shown by Loop R1), service personnel increases the workforce of the division, and workforce is the basic variable for service quality, and service quality related directly to the sales and profits, and profits is the one that has a directly positive effect on releasing financial pressures. So in the long-term decision making, we need to find out a way to improve service quality, and more directly, if possible, increase the sales and profits directly.
Archetype are useful for gaining insight into the “nature” of the underlying problem and for offering a basic structure or foundation upon which a model can be further developed and constructed. (Braun, W., 2002) The organizational archetype in QUINCE Company is a limit to growth archetype. Since in the CLD, we can easily identify that in the QUINCE Company there are the balancing feedback loops and the reinforcing feedback loops (systems-thinking.org, 2004). In this case, the company’s downsizing strategy swap outs service personnel, and in short-term it cuts the total costs of the business, but in long-term, it actually decreases the service quality, and service quality related to company’s reputation, and then decreases the sales and profits, and makes the financial woe worse.
So, in order to improve the future decision making, there are two solutions. One is shown in reinforcing feedback loop R2, which shows the way that use the advertisement as a way to increase sales directly. The relationships between sales and the advertisement is in a positive reinforcing feedback loop (Clay,J., 2010). An increase in advertisement increases the sales directly, and an increase in sales increase the profits directly, and so release the financial pressure of the company; an increases in sales also increase the amount spend on the advertisement since the company sees the positive effects of the advertisement; the second way to deal with the financial pressure is providing professional training can increase the workforce of every single service personnel by improving their skills level which in fact is improving their efficiency in providing service and means in the same period of time, each service personnel can performing more times of services to their customers with a better service quality(Miller,M., 2017). An increase in workforce increases the service quality, and then follows the reinforcing feedback loop R1, and increases the profit, and releases the financial pressures at the end. In other way, an increase in advertisement increases the sales directly (shown in the reinforcing feedback loop R2). While the advertisement increases the costs, and the costs decreases the profits, and then follow the long-term loop R1 (Thwink.org,2017). Indeed, the personnel cost, professional skills training, the advertisement fees and any other possible and applicable costs increase the total costs, and the total costs decrease the profits, and the decreases in the profits increases the level of the financial pressures.
In a conclusion, the administrators of the company need to make future decisions for the long-term profits which means they need focus on not only the short-term win or lose, or not even the short-term profits, but also and must to focus on the “bigger scale”, which means instead of just figuring out one small decision every single step in short-term strategies the company makes, they need to perform a critical and systematical decision making process that allows them to seeand get a clear idea about the whole picture of their own business (Systemsandus, 2007). First of all, they need to figure out what are their core values that keep the company steady in the professional business service, as well in their competitions in markets, and the core value is most like the “spare” of the company. In this case, their service quality is the most important,critical, and strategical business values to keep the company together. And the most of the most important part of this very business value is performed by the service personnel of the service division of the company. So instead of cutting off the positions of those very important personnel, the company should provide the professional skills training to improve the service team’s skills, and to sharp its “spare” and make it even more steady, and also, try as much as they can to keep all the positions inside the service division, that means increase the crews’ warfare, and give them more commitment, way of promotion, and a deep pride feeling about being the crew of the company. The company also need to see that the profits equal to the sales minus the all the possible costs, which refer to total costs (Spicar, R., 2014). Soonly perform a cutting in personnel costs may have a very limit effect tothe situation, and may not last long enough to release the real financial crisis, and the short-term decision may actually cut the very last chance of the long-term decision making, which is more important and vital to the biggest problem of the company it faced. And also, the solutions used to take care of the crisis themselves, may be problems also. Like the professional skills training, the advertisement fees, and the personnel costs in employees’ welfare, payments, and insurances are a heavy burden to keep important people, if the administrators can’t deal with the problems, then they will face new crisis related to the new solutions. If this happens, then the company would face a more complex problems, and no one could easily deal with it.