论文焦虑?美国留学生最怕学术写作类作业

论文焦虑?美国留学生最怕学术写作类作业.每次快要到暑期或者放假前最后疯狂的考试周,对于每个学生来说都是一种煎熬。尤其遇见需要写大段篇幅的论文的时候,简直要崩溃了好不好,干干干,写写写,想抄不敢抄,生怕不小心被判了雷同,论文无效。可是不抄吧,又仿佛没有底气,多少有点焦虑。这焦虑一般就蕴含着两层意思。第一英文呢,不达标,不知道如何写。第二 没什么思路,根本不知道如何下手。

1.英文

英文的部分只能改善提高,但是不能套路。其实很多local的机构在润色论文的过程中,总是希望你直接用英文写。这样便于修改。但是往往写论文的人罗辑思维不强,用英文表达不了自己的逻辑,更导致文章漫如一盘散沙。让修改的人都无从下手。

举个例子:就像我问你,你今天为什么买这款手机。你回答我它很贵,它现在很流行,它是时尚人士的标识。也许对于习惯了隐晦性中文思考的人觉得恩,你是觉得这手机是时尚的象征,体现你的潮。

但是对于英语的思维它不是这样的,我问的你为什么买。你就告诉我这个手机让我看起来很潮就行,你要回答我你为什么去买。而不是这手机本身怎么样。

但是英文这个本身语法词法并不难,只要你懂的逻辑造句的基本形式,够了。不会的词咱们可以用google。实在再不行,咱们请人给改改语法句法错误。

2.在最开始,我想先说说写论文的误区:

2.1写论文前盲目动笔,开始写Introduction

写了删,删了写,没写5分钟就统计下字数,是典型的没有思路。

当你不知道整体的结构和框架的情况下,就是毫无头绪。最后凑出来的一页,可能还被删掉了。所以最好的办法就是先确定整体的思路,列出来一个提纲。

2.2老师没有看到他想看到的论点

很多学生拿到的comments,最常见的就是老师把辛辛苦苦写的段落划掉,说irrelevant。这是因为里面的观点和主题关系不大,纯属凑字数的。

如何让老师在论文中看到他想看到的呢?

第一件事先google一下自己的老师,他写过什么文章。他在这一课上是啥观点理论。Google太费劲,就去看看自己的课件。一般每个大课件前都会有个摘要,大课件后有个总结。琢磨几个小时,串一串,看看老师在每个课件里的观点是啥。

2.3查找中文资料,然后google translate(国外老师一眼就能看出来啊!)

这个方法非常非常的拙劣。为啥呢?

首先中英文的表达和思路不一样,直接发现的话看起来很怪。尤其是国外老师,一眼就能看出来。其次,大家找的很多中文资料学术性不高,可能就是从某个blog里面摘抄出来的,观点本来就有问题。最后,没有恰当的reference做支撑。

最后希望我们在中国留学生在进行论文写作之前一定不要盲目动笔,否则只是浪费时间。如果在留学期间有任何学业上的困难都可选择我们1st论文代写提供的优质学术辅导服务,包括但不限于essay代写、assignment代写、report代写、paper代写等各留学科目英文论文代写服务以及网课代修代上,quiz/exam代考服务,欢迎联系本站客服提交作业代写和网课代修要求。

Paper与essay的区别及paper范文分享

初到国外留学的同学经常会被paper、essay、assignment这些作业搞得一头雾水,根本傻傻分不清它们之间有什么区别,今天小编就来给大家讲一讲paper与essay之间的区别。

其实paper和一般的Essay、Assignment其实差不多,也是留学生论文、作业中的一种文体,不过Paper相对来说更为正式一些,因此我们在写作时需要注意Paper的写作格式,能写好Essay的不一定能代写Paper,如果我们有需求找代写的话,在代写的实际过程中paper也比essay要难写的多,因此代写Paper机构的挑选需要大家注意,挑选一家靠谱的Paper代写机构才能帮轻松的完成你的论文作业。

 

Academic god小编帮大家整理了一些比较好的paper题目集锦,希望可以给留学生写作paper提供参考。

  • Controversial Topics
  • Abortion Rights Human Rights
  • Adoption Immigration
  • Advertising Ethics Internet Privacy
  • Affirmative Action Juvenile Offenders
  • Alcohol Landmines
  • Alternative Medicine Legalization of Marijuana
  • Animal Experimentation & Rights Legal Drinking Age
  • Anti-Semitism Media and Terrorism
  • Bioethics Media Images of Minorities
  • Biological Weapons Media in Wartime
  • Bilingual Education Media Violence
  • Business Ethics Medical Ethics
  • Capital Punishment Medical Malpractice
  • Censorship Mental Health
  • Civil Liberties & Anti-Terrorism Measures Minimum Wage
  • Child Abuse Middle East
  • Class Action Lawsuits National Security
  • Cloning Nuclear Waste
  • Crime Victims Nuclear Weapons
  • Corporate Corruption & Responsibility Nutrition
  • Death Penalty Prescription Drug Advertising
  • Domestic Violence Political Corruption
  • Driving Under the Influence Population
  • Drug Legalization Pornography
  • Eating Disorders Poverty
  • Endangered Species Prayer in Public Schools
  • Environment Prisons
  • Euthanasia Racism
  • Evolution Rape
  • Family Relations School Violence
  • Female Genital Mutilation School Dress Code
  • Foreign Aid School Reform
  • Free Speech Sex Education
  • Freedom of the Press Sexual Harassment
  • Gambling Smoking
  • Gangs Social Security
  • Gay Marriage and Parenting Stem Cell Research
  • Gay Rights Steroids
  • Gays in the Military Suicide
  • Genetic Engineering Teenage Pregnancy
  • Global Warming Terrorism
  • Globalization War
  • Gun Control Welfare
  • Hate Crimes Women’s Rights
  • Health Care Women In The Military
  • Home Schooling Working Mothers
  • Homelessness Workplace Violence

Term paper范文:关于业务流程重组原理的思考

分析业务变更和业务流程重组的原则,以及它们与组织的关系

 

对组织中工作流模式和可用性测试的概念和应用的描述和评估

 

对您使用的三种建模工具的评价,以及通过建模练习测试拟议过程的证据。

 

在评估业务流程的有效性时要考虑的因素的列表和分析

 

在我们的学前教育中,我们每天都使用过程,并且总是希望改进我们的设置和测试过程。我们的学前教育使用商业变革来审视我们的处境,我们想去的地方,我们将如何到达那里,为什么我们要改变,我们需要什么措施才能取得成功。我现在正在完成一个SDP,SDP是学前教育未来一年的战略发展计划,我们来看看我们想在学前教育中实现什么,以及我们将如何实现它。看一个组织内的变革管理原则可以帮助你支持受变革影响的人们。在任何一种过程中,为了成功都必须使用通信。

 

业务流程再造是看你的员工,确保你的工作力量,优化资源,你有。重新设计的重新设计工作流程,在一个组织。当我们审视业务流程再造时,我们希望看到如何在最短的时间内完成所选择的任务,其中一个例子就是维护。在育儿的保障是最重要的与你所做的一切的过程中需要不断重新设计,由于电流的变化和立法,这方面的一个例子是,最近问父母在我们诞生起,也不求照片出现在社交媒体网站,由于儿童的身份被陶醉的许可或同意。然后,我们不得不重新设计我们目前的设施,以确保这一声明被用于保护儿童。

 

Produce a log or a reflective journal which shows:

An analysis of the principles of business change and business process re-engineering, and how they relate to your organisation

A description and evaluation of the concept and application of workflow patterns and usability testing in your organisation

An evaluation of three modelling tools used by you, and evidence of having tested a proposed processes through a modelling exercise

A list and analysis of factors to be taken into account when evaluating the effectiveness of business processes

Within our pre-school we use processes daily and are always looking to improve our setting and test processes. Business change is used within our pre-school to look at where we are, where we want to be, how we are going to get there, why we want to change and what measures will we need in order to succeed. I am in the process at present of completing an SDP, an SDP is a strategical development plan for the next coming year within pre-school, we look at what we want to achieve at pre-school and how we are going to achieve it. Looking at change management principles within an organisation can help you to support the people effected by change. During any kind of process communication must be used at all times in order to succeed.

Business process re-engineering is looking at your workforces and ensuring that your work force optimises the resources that you have available to you. Re-engineering is the redesigns of work flows within an organisation. When we look at business re-engineering we look to see how to get the chosen task done in the least amount of time, an example of this is Safeguarding. Safeguarding within childcare is paramount with everything you do the process constantly needs to re-engineered due to current changes and legislation, an example of this is, recently asking parents for permission or consent at our nativity play and also asking for no photos to appear on social media sites due to children’s identities being revelled. We then had to re-engineer our current set up to ensure this announcement was put in to protect the children.

Business re-engineering is an important part of rethinking and redesigning during the business process. Business improvement looks at key areas for change such a performance and then sets about to take drastic measures to enhance, speed, profitability, training, cost control and efficiency are measured.

Workflow patterns are specialised forms of design pattern for different perspectives for process aware information systems. Work flow patterns can be described as independent, interdependent or sequential. A method that can be used for testing these patterns is through usability testing, using real users and being observed by a researcher to see where they encounter problems. Scenario testing is a type of testing that can be used to test a product or process to highlight any problems they may encounter, the advantage of using this type of testing is that its real people being used for real situations or tasks and feedback can be given before a process is put into place, an disadvantage of this is that it’s not a true real life situation so would the feedback be any use to us. Another type of testing is hallway testing, using large places to set up and stop people asking them to give feedback on a product, this type of method has an advantage of the people being random so it’s very real like and people are put on the spot which could usually be very helpful and should reveal the truth, gaining better results. A disadvantage of this type of testing is that people are usually in a rush and will not want to stop to give feedback, it becomes a hard method by trying to attract people’s attention and get some results.

At pre-school I use usability testing by using trial periods of new business process ideas. When I first started at pre-school I changed the settings routine by adapting free flow play, we trialled it and spent a lot of time talking about it, looking at any weakness and talking about the benefits, the advantage of trial systems is that its testing the water before you make this change, it usually highlights any areas in need of tweaking. A disadvantage of this is that sometimes it takes time to see a huge problem and by then it is too late and in pre-school sometimes there is no room for error, an example of this could be getting the ratios wrong by trialling a new process if this happened we would be in big trouble and could cause unnecessary stress and accidents on children in the setting. In our setting with

Modelling types that I have used to look at business process and change are; brain storming and critical path an analysis. Brains storming allows a lot ideas to be involved when creating a change or business process and allows you to put down the unthinkable, however sometimes this creates a bigger picture that has more problems when we only need a quick brainstorm to address an idea or change.

A critical path allows help to plan all the tasks that must be completed as part of the process. An advantage of this is that it has clear steps and addresses the tasks that need to be achieved, although a disadvantage of this is that you have to complete the steps in order, so step 3 can’t be completed before step 2.

There are many factors to consider when evaluating the effectiveness of a business processes. Are the processes more efficient and effective? Are they helping improve our organisations performance? Is it helping me be better connected with internal and internal customers and stakeholders? Is this new way more flexible and easier? Are the helping our business objectives?

Academic god代写网 为你分享essay范文

创造力与因果循环 Creativity and Causal Loop

什么是创造力?在课堂上,我们讨论了这个问题,我们了解到,研究者从天才和优秀人才的创造力的角度来研究创造力,而在过程取向的方法中,创造性被认为是一个可以获得和改进的思维过程的特性。通过教学和实践。创造力包括使用直觉、机智、洞察力,而不是缩小到“一个最好的决定”,它正在打开创造新的可能性、更多的选择、训练和经验的增长。在现代生活中,人们总是面临着工作中的问题,同时,由于工作经验和教育的需要,他们以创造性的方式来解决问题,因此他们需要以自己已经知道的方式去解决问题。

Part A

Introduction 简介

What is creativity? In class, we discussed this very question, and we learn that researchers studied creativity in the perspectives of creativity in geniuses and people with outstanding talents; while, on process-orientation approach, viewed creativity as a property of a thought process that can be acquired and improved through instruction and practice (Sulaiman,J., 2017). Creativity involves the use of intuition,ingenuity, insight, rather than narrowing down to“one best decision”,it is opening tocreate new possibilities, manyalternatives, outgrowth of training and experience. In modern life, people face problems in their jobs all the time,meanwhile, they lose their ability to solve the problems in creative ways due to the answers from work experiences and education that they need to solve the problems in the way they already knew. Those are the creativity blocks(Sulaiman,J., 2017). Creative block is your worst enemy, and it can come from almost anywhere. It caused the failure of creativity or innovation. We look at how to treat the problem areas, and get your ideas moving. So, when it comes to a problem that needs innovative solutions, most of us can’t really do a creative thinking, and furthermore to figure out a creative idea. To define whether an innovation is unsuccessful or failed, we need to figure out whether it provided a good influence on its user or make its innovator better in his health situation, reputation, wealth, or any other aspects in the time when the innovation has been created. In this paper, I will discuss the concepts, purpose and applications of the methods which were used in the creativity that is not successful.

Main Body 正文

As all we know, tire is an unmissable part of all kinds of vehicle, and vulcanized rubber is the basic material for the tire production. But to the innovator of this certain industrial material, Charles Goodyear (1800-1860),(Zumdahl, S.,&Zumdahl, S., 2014)to him, his innovation was not very successful: at his time, rubber is a material that is not stabilized when the temperature changed (Haven, K., and Berg, R., 1999). So Charles wanted to find a way to stabilize the rubber so it can endure the temperature changes while keep its shape (Hosler, D., Burkett, S. L., and Tarkanian, M. J, 1999). But without the help of specialized knowledge in science or chemistry, he was only able to try all the ingredient he could image, and spend massive time in his experiment (Iles, G., 1912). Although he finally figured out the right chemical process to produce stabilized rubber-vulcanized rubber, his innovation didn’t have a well-sold chance to him, and it actually “dead” at the investment and incubation approaches to creativity, since he was unable to afford the investment and he couldn’t payback the debts for the investment, so he hadbankruptcy and dead in prison at the end. Sadly, his name had been used by his debtors as the tire product brand to make and sell the tire and rubber products that had been innovated by Charles to become one of the top three tire brand all around the world after Charles dead. There are 5 types of creativity blocks in Charles’ case.

1.Constancy blocks

Constancy blocks constrain the way problems are defined that define a problem in one way and pursue only that definition to reach a solution. In this case, at the time Charles had no idea on which receipt should be used to get rubber a stable status that allows the rubber to insist the temperature changes before its boiling spot, so he kept adding new ingredients into rubber to try his luck without certain planed ideas. He only had very a few number of solutions perceived to be relevant, so he could just try millions of receipts to find what he needed, which required plenty of time, money, technique, manpower, and passion (McGuinness,M., 2017). This type of block makes the biggest obstacle to the innovation activity especially when there is no clue of what should to be done, and this obstacle normally dedicated to whether a innovation can be successful or not at the end, since the innovator has no idea nor direction of how to get the answers, the innovator has totry just everything he/she could try, and by lucky, he/she can find a clue, and may or may not get the results they need. In a conclusion, this block is every innovator need to face and solve on the very most. Like if the direction is wrong, then no matter how much effort the innovator put into his experiment, he/she will not get what he seemed to.

Practical Solutions:

Since Charles was not a chemist or a scientist, and what he desired to accomplish was fit in chemist or scientist’s job description, the specialized education in chemistry and science would probably the best shots to his dream. The knowledge in these science fields would help him to broad his view in solving creativity problems and shorting the whole processes of research and incubation in next step of creativity approaches.

2.Mental obstacles constrain the way

In Charles ‘family, his father and grandfather were all famous innovator, so the light circles on their heads certainly made Charles a burden, that he must become someone successful in innovation creation. Charles was not a chemist or a scientist, If he don’t have this burden, then he may start his career in other field, like business, and may innovate something that suit the time and most important suit his characteristics, then he may get a better chance to have a successful life, live longer, and become richer. That’s why we can always see a poor kid get rich at end, but a rich kid gets poor finally. Burden makes people doing things they don’t want to do, and the thing may not be the right thing to do (‘Charles Goodyear’. 2017).

Practical Solutions:

This one is tricky. Normally it is hard to figure out the solutions by the people themselves, since it is related to psychological and mental status. But a lateral thinking may solve the problem (Cooper,B.B., 2014).

3.Poverty

Charles had used all his money and debts to innovate the vulcanized rubber, which but he can’t afford the scale of the investment, and at that time, he can’t get his investment back. In the time he created the vulcanized rubber, the rubber industry was struggled all around the world, due to the unstable status of rubber that become softer in warm weather and get harder in cold temperatures, in short, rubber has not been widely used in that time, nor customer-like product, so he hasn’t get investment repay quickly enough to pay back his debts.

Practical Solutions:

Poverty is very hard to deal since there are a bunch of millionaires with a millions way to get rich, but there’s no such a way to extinguish poverty. Hard working on making money, saving money, and constraining the use of money only to those necessary spending may help a bit, but no promise. Stop the blinded business expending or investment, and make sure each penny spend on the investment are well-thought and wisely, then poverty may leave away. Those action are vital to improve the financial status of a innovator (Shoor,I., 2012).

  1. Overload

Charles has faced various problems in various categories, like poverty, nine kids in house, law suits, debts, poor health status, and so on. It is important to solve the correct problem one by one in turns. If all these problems come together and all of those need to be solved at the same time, him would be overloaded for sure, and if overload happens, then his mental and physical ability to manipulate the problems is gone or almost gone (Goodyear, C. 1939). If he was not that high-pressured, he would figure out a better way to continue his innovation, a sustainable way that allows him to keep doing his innovation without go bankruptcy; or demonstrated it in another but suitable time, he may have a better situation.

Practical Solutions:

We can always say “take easy, pal”. But when it comes to ourselves, we always try to believe that we are the superman who is unbeatable. So slow down, and deal with the problem one by one, otherwise, none (May,T., 2017).

5.Compression block

Charles is a hard-working guy, and he focused on how to keep doing something but looking too narrowly at a problem without take a deep look at whether the direction of for solving problems is suitable or not. This habit is good for people doing those work requires low level of creativity, like moving guy, or room cleaners. But for an innovator or scientist, critical thinking and research plan are the most crucial part that should have been done at the beginning of their hardworking, since all of those results are very likely unknown and unpredictable and need huge time consuming (Goins,J., 2017). To most innovators, time is the most valuable resources and a vital requirement to their innovations, because if others innovate something earlier than theirs, then their creative project may mean nothing at all, and all effort wasted. This block was exactly the one caused him misjudged in fund management and debts management, and this misjudgment made him go bankruptcy and had cost his life at the end.

Practical Solutions:

Thinking out of circle. Broaden the view of solving problems, and need to filter out inaccurate, misleading or irrelevant information, so the innovator can have less constrained and limitation on solving problems (Vengoechea,X., 2017).

Conclusion 结论

In a conclusion, we can see that if an innovation activity wanted to be successful at the end, the innovator need to conquer various type of creativity blocks, and by lucky, the customers like their innovations, his/her partners didn’t betray them, and finally, their innovation get successful. If any steps went wrong, then the result may have high possibility goes fail. A strong mind and consistency mental were usually required for the great innovators. After all, people usually don’t really know what they are doing, or what they are going to do next. With the right method to think through all the creativity blocks and their corresponding solutions, we can have a better chance to be finally accomplished. And if Charles could find the solutions for his creativity blocks, he may innovate an innovation that satisfy the requirements of its customers, and be a Thomas Alva Edison-like great innovator at that time.

Part B

Explanation of future decision making of the QUINCE Company

In purpose to get a better and full understanding in the relationships between downsizing strategy and the financial pressures and therefore figure out a better solution to deal with financial woe in The QUINCE Company, we draw this casual loop diagram(Cuva,A ., 2015). In this diagram, the short-term-to-long-term consequences of downsizing causes by the financial pressure in the equipment service division of the company has been shown clearly, as same as the relationships between different variables in the loops (Businessclass, 2017). Since people of the service team and the finance teaminside the company held strong different views about their company’ strategies to deal with the financial troublethat whether downsizing strategy is the best way to deal with the crisis and further more, if the downsizing strategy is not the best solution, then which strategy/way should be chose to deal with the financial pressures currently that has been faced by the company (Sulaiman, J., 2017) The desire and urgency forced the administrators of the company must to find the appropriate way to conquer their financial crisis and hold the company together before all the company fall apart.

In this diagram, the sign of the arrow (the “+” sign for same and meanwhile the “-” for opposite) indicates whether the variable increases or decreases relative to the other variables. The sign of the loop types(the “Rs” sign for the reinforcing feedback loop, and the “Bs” sign for the balancing feedback loop, and all balancing feedback loop are goal-seeking processes) (Kim, D. H., 1992).

There are two balancing feedback loop and two reinforcing feedback loop in this diagram. The balancing feedback loop B1 shows the short-term behavior of using downsizing to combat financial pressure. While the reinforcing feed back loop R1, in other hand, draws out the long-term consequences of this behavior, showing that it actually increases financial pressures (Researchgate,2017). The balancing feedback loop B2 shows the real relationship between service personnel and the profits (Betterlesson, 2017). The reinforcing feedback loop R2 shows the possible way to increase sales (that is the advertisement), and further more the relationships between advertisements and the sales. Inside the reinforcing loop R1, the arrows with “+”sign show the possible way to increase the service quality, and the service quality variable directly increase the sales and profits consequently, and release or even deal with the financial crisis finally. And the balancing feedback loop B2 shows the possible way to increase the sales directly while has an opposite (sign “-”) affect on the profits.

The upper balancing feedback loop B1 shows the short-term behavior of downsizing without think the unintended consequences of this behavior. In short-term, downsizing strategy seems to improve profits by cutting the number of service personnel, which means fewer personnel costs and therefore fewer total costs, this consequence indeed seem to have higher profits correspondingly, and more profits to deal with financial pressure. In short-term, an increase in financial pressure directly makes the scale of downsizing of the equipment servicing division. An increase in downsizing of the division directly causes the decrease of the total number of the service personnel. A decrease in service personnel directly causes the decrease in workforce. A decrease in workforce causes decreases in service quality directly. A decrease in service quality causes directly in decreases in sales, and a decrease in sales causes the directly decreases in profits, and the decreases in profits make the financial pressure bigger directly.

But in the long-term (which has been shown in the reinforcing feedback loop R1), since the downsizing strategy decreases the number of the service personnel in the service division, which the variable is directly related to the workforce variable, since the number of service personnel decreases, and so each service personnel remain need to perform more service, and therefore the service quality for each service job decreases, and the sales decreases due to the decreases in the service quality, since the quality usually related to the CORE VALUE of a company (D,S. J., 2000), and the core value is the value that customers clarify one brand to another. Since the sales decreases, the profits go down, and the financial pressure is still there and maybe become even worse. So it is obvious that the downsizing strategy should not be taken as a long-term strategy of the company in order to deal with their financial woe. In long-term (shown by Loop R1), service personnel increases the workforce of the division, and workforce is the basic variable for service quality, and service quality related directly to the sales and profits, and profits is the one that has a directly positive effect on releasing financial pressures. So in the long-term decision making, we need to find out a way to improve service quality, and more directly, if possible, increase the sales and profits directly.

Archetype are useful for gaining insight into the “nature” of the underlying problem and for offering a basic structure or foundation upon which a model can be further developed and constructed. (Braun, W., 2002) The organizational archetype in QUINCE Company is a limit to growth archetype. Since in the CLD, we can easily identify that in the QUINCE Company there are the balancing feedback loops and the reinforcing feedback loops (systems-thinking.org, 2004). In this case, the company’s downsizing strategy swap outs service personnel, and in short-term it cuts the total costs of the business, but in long-term, it actually decreases the service quality, and service quality related to company’s reputation, and then decreases the sales and profits, and makes the financial woe worse.

So, in order to improve the future decision making, there are two solutions. One is shown in reinforcing feedback loop R2, which shows the way that use the advertisement as a way to increase sales directly. The relationships between sales and the advertisement is in a positive reinforcing feedback loop (Clay,J., 2010). An increase in advertisement increases the sales directly, and an increase in sales increase the profits directly, and so release the financial pressure of the company; an increases in sales also increase the amount spend on the advertisement since the company sees the positive effects of the advertisement; the second way to deal with the financial pressure is providing professional training can increase the workforce of every single service personnel by improving their skills level which in fact is improving their efficiency in providing service and means in the same period of time, each service personnel can performing more times of services to their customers with a better service quality(Miller,M., 2017). An increase in workforce increases the service quality, and then follows the reinforcing feedback loop R1, and increases the profit, and releases the financial pressures at the end. In other way, an increase in advertisement increases the sales directly (shown in the reinforcing feedback loop R2). While the advertisement increases the costs, and the costs decreases the profits, and then follow the long-term loop R1 (Thwink.org,2017). Indeed, the personnel cost, professional skills training, the advertisement fees and any other possible and applicable costs increase the total costs, and the total costs decrease the profits, and the decreases in the profits increases the level of the financial pressures.

In a conclusion, the administrators of the company need to make future decisions for the long-term profits which means they need focus on not only the short-term win or lose, or not even the short-term profits, but also and must to focus on the “bigger scale”, which means instead of just figuring out one small decision every single step in short-term strategies the company makes, they need to perform a critical and systematical decision making process that allows them to seeand get a clear idea about the whole picture of their own business (Systemsandus, 2007). First of all, they need to figure out what are their core values that keep the company steady in the professional business service, as well in their competitions in markets, and the core value is most like the “spare” of the company. In this case, their service quality is the most important,critical, and strategical business values to keep the company together. And the most of the most important part of this very business value is performed by the service personnel of the service division of the company. So instead of cutting off the positions of those very important personnel, the company should provide the professional skills training to improve the service team’s skills, and to sharp its “spare” and make it even more steady, and also, try as much as they can to keep all the positions inside the service division, that means increase the crews’ warfare, and give them more commitment, way of promotion, and a deep pride feeling about being the crew of the company. The company also need to see that the profits equal to the sales minus the all the possible costs, which refer to total costs (Spicar, R., 2014). Soonly perform a cutting in personnel costs may have a very limit effect tothe situation, and may not last long enough to release the real financial crisis, and the short-term decision may actually cut the very last chance of the long-term decision making, which is more important and vital to the biggest problem of the company it faced. And also, the solutions used to take care of the crisis themselves, may be problems also. Like the professional skills training, the advertisement fees, and the personnel costs in employees’ welfare, payments, and insurances are a heavy burden to keep important people, if the administrators can’t deal with the problems, then they will face new crisis related to the new solutions. If this happens, then the company would face a more complex problems, and no one could easily deal with it.

 

 

以上是assignment1st小编给大家分享的案例,从上面范文可以看出paper的写作要求更高,且文章内容更严谨,如果您有写作上的困难,可以找我们,我们拥有最专业的写作团队和最专业的服务态度,致力于为留学生解决课业上的困难。选择我们,让我们为您的学业保驾护航。 7*24小时在线客服竭诚为您服务,QQ:5757940欢迎您前来咨

英文essay到底要怎样才能写好?

Essay对于留学生来说并不陌生,对于一些初到国外留学的同学来说可能还有点懵,essay是啥?怎么写?有什么要求?我英文还没熟练到可以随便写写就是论文的程度啊?

好的好的,不管你对于写essay有什么疑问,今天小编就来详细讲一讲英文essay到底要怎么写才能顺利过关!

Essay是一般意义上的英文论文,总体上分为introduction,main body 和conclusion三个部分。但是在写作essay前确实有很多工作要做的。

  • 研究题目

如果你的essay题目是被指定的,那你可以直接对其进行研究,其背后的深意有什么,其相应的比较好的论点有哪些等等,如果你的题目是需要自己拟定的,那么你可以根据自己的学科、兴趣爱好等等来选择。

2、查资料

这是必不可少的环节,因为essay是要陈述观点的,观点是需要足够的证据来支撑它的,而且当你有了一个论题的时候,肯定不可能一开始就有很多写作灵感,通过查找相关资料也可以得到很多写作灵感,在阅读这些资料的时候有好的引用的话要及时记录下来,这样在后续的撰写就会方便简单很多。

3、确认论点

题目研究好了,资料也查好了,相信你对于你essay的论点也应该清晰的,当然要注意,essay的论点最好不要太宽泛,但也不要太狭隘,最好是能引起人们共鸣的观点,而且你得到论点是要经得起推敲的,且是要有足够证据或是例子来证明它的。

  • 列提纲

正式写作之前为你的essay列一个撰写提纲是非常明智的做法,因为列提纲不仅可以减低你的写作难度,也可以保证你的整篇文章内容都是围绕主题进行陈述的。提纲内容可以是粗略的也可以是精细的。但无论是哪种你都会在后续的撰写中发现写提纲的好处。

5、Introduction

introduction也就是引言,作为文章开头的第一部分,它的内容一般用3-5句话概括一下你论文的背景、论点。因为essay的篇幅一般都是比较短的,所以引言部分是不能太长的,要做到精要简明,一般引言的开头句型有“As far as …is concerned 就……而言”

“There’s no denying the fact that…毫无疑问,无可否认”等等。

6、主体

文章的主体部分主要是对你观点的证明,内容虽说是整篇essay篇幅最长的,但是其内容也不能过于啰嗦冗长,且你的引用篇幅要恰到好处,过分引用会导致你的论文内容变成别人话语的转述,过少引用也可能没办法很好的证明你的观点。

  • 结论

所谓凤头豹尾指的就是我们论文的开头与结尾一定要写好,结论作为文章最后的总结,主要强调你文章的重点,或是展望一下这个问题的未来趋势,当然,结论部分不能简单重复引言部分,虽然意思相同,但是一定要用不同的语言表达。

  • 注意

值得注意的是essay的reference部分是不容忽视的,针对你引用的资料做一个详细的出处注明是非常有必要的,否则有可能会被判定抄袭而导致挂科,更严重者还有被退学的可能哦。

说到这里大家对于怎样写essay也应该有个大方向的了解了,essay的写作除了上述的一些重点,当然也少不了同学们在平时的日积月累,要知道只是知识并不是靠一天就能学成的,写作能力也不是一天就能练成的,当然如果您现在还没有把握写出优秀的essay,可以找我们Academic god专业代写机构,我们专业针对学生各种论文类型代写,旗下优秀写手众多更有专业级教授坐镇,只为保障您的论文质量。7*24小时在线客服竭诚为您服务,QQ:5757940欢迎您前来咨询订购。

论文格式设置的注意事项

如果说写论文有什么小技巧可以遵循,那么可能就是格式方面的设置技巧有利于整个论文的撰写了,为什么呢?因为如果我们一开始就设定好硕士论文的格式,对于后续的处理就非常容易了,而且硕士论文的格式和其他论文还是有很大差异的,硕士论文的格式几乎是不能出现任何问题的,否则会很容易退回重写,严重的还会影响到毕业,一般来说每个院校和老师给出的要求可能都不相同,相信老师也给大家讲过一些固有格式,但是可能还有一些细节方面没有照顾到,今天我们就来给大家讲一讲关于硕士论文格式的注意事项。

  • 写作之前要进行基础设置

在开始撰写论文之前,我们首先要完成硕士论文格式的确认工作,让我们自己知道到底有那些类型的设计要求,格式如何以及论文需要分成那几个大部分等等。这样进行简单的设定之后,在后续的撰写中基本就不会出什么大问题了。

  • 进行样式方面的设置

无论是是什么类型的论文,对于论文格式都有一定的样式,但是很多人不太注意标题的格式,认为只要自己的论文内容写得清楚就可以了,实际上并非如此。一般来讲我们的标题可以用“章、节”,而小标题如果要分层也要将其写明为“一、(一)”“1、1.1”一次类推,当然现在很多Word文档都有专用的论文设定,直接使用模板就可以完成设计,也可以为我们节省很多时间,如果真的不想让论文出现任何问题,保证格式的正确性,那么在样式方面一定要确定好才可以。

  • 图表和公式的表述必须公正

论文中经常要使用图表和公式,很多同学可能都不知道如何将这些在Word中现实,有的直接复制网络上的或者直接用截图来标示,其实硕士论文格式对图表和公式都有明确的要求,图中的参数必须有单位、数量等,而且标题也要居中在图表上方,其中的术语、符号、单位都必须要保证文中所有格式一致,而且图表不能跨页标示,所以在版面方面一定要安排好。

  • 细节问题要及时调整

关于论文的格式,谁都无法保证一次成型,特别是自己独立完成论文撰写得到时候,硕士论文的要求本来就多,很多人都没办法做到一一对比确认,所以在自己发现问题或是老师指出问题的时候,一定要及时的对细节进行调整,如果不能做到及时调整也一定要做好标记,方便接下来的修改。

 

其实论文格式对于论文来说不是最重要的,但是也不能忽略,一般情况下学校会提前告知我们硕士论文的格式,在学校官网上也会有所通告,如果官网上有的话建议大家可以下载下来,按照案例的论文进行排版,这样也会省事不少,论文的格式是可以影响论文分数的,所以千万不要忽视一些细节上的问题,也不要它不是很重要就不去在意,硕士论文完成难度比较高,各个论文的组成方面都需要注意,不能顾此失彼,更不能丢失一些重要环节的检查。

当然如果你对于独立撰写论文没有把握,或是对细节方面的排版觉得自己可能做不到,也可以寻找代写机构帮助你完成,但是一定要注意选择正规大型的专业代写机构,以保障自身的权益和论文的质量。

专业写手给你的关于写好paper、essay的小技巧

作为大型的正规代写机构(此处并非自夸),我们通过长时间的和客户的交流中得知,很多同学都不知道怎样才能写出一片令人满意的论文,不知道要怎样抓住论文写作的重点,也不知道在论文中哪些是不能够出现的错误,哪些是能加分的部分。其实对于这个问题,专业写手的答案可能会帮助你有一些思路上的启发。下面就和小编一起来看看,我们机构旗下的专业写手为大家带来的答案吧。

首先,在撰写论文的时候,如果是老师给你的题目,那么你就要围绕主题进行撰写,试想一下,如果你的论文内容和老师给出的题目完全没有关系,老师会给你通过吗?肯定不会,所以围绕题目展开论文的撰写是非常重要的,那如果是老师没有给题目,需要我们自己命题呢?这个时候你就要考虑到自己题目的新颖程度了,如果你的题目没有含义,没有学术价值,那么你同样也是得不到高分的,而且关于你论文的整体内容的完整性和专业性也一定要做到,如果做不到那么你就不要想在众多同学中脱颖而出了,另外论文的专业性以及对于语言表达能力的加强也是至关重要的,这样才能让整篇文章具有完整性。

 

在撰写论文的时候,有的同学喜欢用过多的修饰词去堆砌,想要通过这些修饰词来让论文的内容看起来更华丽,其实这样做是非常不友好的,我们知道国外论文的要求就是精炼简洁,最好就是能直达关键点,如果你以为的使用一些华丽的辞藻来堆砌,只会让你的论文看起来毫无学术性和严谨性可言,让人觉得华而不实,所以在写作的时候一定要抓住需要论述的重点而且要做到思路清晰逻辑通顺,并且具有非常严谨性的思维模式。国外对于essay、report等assignment的要求就是必须要非常严谨,不论是何种论文类型都应该把准确性做到极致,否则你的论文是得不到导师青睐的,更加不可能从众多同学中脱颖而出,所以在写作过程中一定要注意论文的严谨性,千万不要试图用多余的修饰词来堆砌你的论文,这不是在优化你的论文,而是在毁它。

 

在你下笔撰写之前,一定要想好你要写的到底是怎么样的一篇论文,在选题方面,你是非常需要花心思话时间去了解的,而且你的题目和内容是否具有创新意义,是否值得讨论还是敷衍了事,你的老师是一眼就能看出来的,如果你短时间内不能够想出一个很好的题目,那么我们就要注意在平时的知识储备了,我们平时要多花时间去图书馆或是互联网找一些和你自身专业相关的资料、书籍、期刊等来进行阅读学习,一方面可以拓宽你的思路,另一方面也能够加强你的理解能力,包括以后你再有自己定题的essay也不会很难了,因为你的知识储备够,你的思维在平时也得到拓宽,所以一定不能忽视平时的学习哦。

 

说实话,对于我们这一代来说,获取更多的知识并不难,互联网的爆发时代,你想要的在互联网上都可以找到,所以目前各大院校对于留学生的要求也是每年都在提高,对于同学们对自己专业的了解程度也是非常重视,所以经常会有essay、assignment等作业来让同学们写,如果你对自己的专业做不到很了解,平时不努力学习那么你是很难做到完成一篇优秀论文的,但是如果你通过平时的不断累积,努力的多学多看多练习,逐年的去提高对自己的要求,在了解了论文的写作框架结构后,再加上那么一些新颖的思维,基本上想要完成一篇优秀的论文是不难的。

 

说了这么多,相信同学们也能看出来写手的建议了,那就是不要懈怠,不要懒惰,不要找借口,例如平时的知识累积,例如多看多学多练习,这些都是你懒惰就做不到的事情,只有努力上进才可以做到你想做的,不管是目前的学业还是以后的人生,都必须要有一个积极上进的态度,态度对了你的人生方向就对了,如果你懒惰,那么谁也救不了你,你大可以找代写机构帮你完成作业,但是你以后的人生谁帮你呢?所以努力起来吧。

 

学术论文真的“万事开头难”吗?

学术论文不好写,学术论文的开头更不好写,所谓万事开头难不是随便说说的,写好开头不仅可以起到引人入胜的作用,更有让阅读者继续阅读下去的欲望,而且对于你以下所要表达的内容有一个大致的了解。如果你的开头写的索然无味,啰嗦冗长,肯定是不行的,那么我们要怎样才能写出一个好的学术论文的开头呢?下面跟着留学生代写一起来学习吧。

  • 知名效应

在学术论文的开头,我们可以引用比较有名气的问题来打开读者的兴趣,比如“现在网络直播的知名度让很多不知名产品得到的更好的销售量,但是在销售量的背后有着很多缺陷,比如…….所以今天针对网络销售的问题我提出来一些XX建议,并进行论证可行性”如果你这么开头,首先阅读者对你问题会很好奇,因为这件事是现在大多数人都知道的一个现象,想要知道你对于这件事有什么独到的见解,就会有继续阅读下去的兴趣,所以学会利用一些有名的问题,或者热门的问题来进行开头是非常有好处的。

  • 善于发现别人没有发现的问题

这一点首先需要我们自身有一个很强的探索发现能力,在众多相关问题中,找到一个他人未曾涉足或是没有发现的问题,进行逐一阐述,这样的好处和第一点一样,会让阅读者有好奇感,有继续往下探索你文章的兴趣,例如此次新冠疫情的病毒只能够传染给年龄相对较大的人,但儿童或幼儿却是免疫的。首先不要纠结这个例子是否成立,你只要按照这个逻辑来写就对了,这样是不是能够让人有阅读下去的理由呢?别人会想,为什么儿童和幼儿是免疫的呢?从而继续读下去。

  • 从现有的问题中找到新问题

这一点同样需要我们自身具备很强的专业知识储备以及前沿性的眼光,从现有问题里发现一些别人没有发现的新问题,比如“经过多方的研究实验了解,新冠病毒的传播主要是通过唾液,飞沫进行有效的传播,报告中指出佩戴口罩能够有效阻挡病毒的传播,但经过深入研究发现,佩戴口罩可能也无非避免被感染的可能,因为XXXXXX”,这样来写能够引发他人的深思,并且想要具体了解除了飞沫传播还有哪些传播的新型可能,只要读者能这么想,那么你这个开头就是成功的。

  • 发现问题的决定性要点

其实在学术界是有非常多理论都没有决定性证据的,即使他们在某些程度上看起来十分无懈可击,但是就因为缺少了决定性的证据所以使得其结果可能并不被认可。所以我们要通过发现并寻找出这类理论好坏或可行不可行的决定性证据来证明,同样想要做到这一点我们还是需要非常强的专业领域的知识储备,因为我们这样做其实就是在推倒或者改进前任的理论,难度是很大的,在寻找发现的过程中,你需要用强有力的证据来证明这个理论确实是存在关键问题的,并且要让阅读者认可你。比如:“著名实验薛定谔的猫说明了事物的不确定性,但整个实验之中有一个致命的问题是XXXXX,这个问题会导致研究结果和结论违反了物理定律…..” ,首先这个问题是非常著名的实验,现在你针对这个实验发现了一些问题,然后对其进行了一些分析,这样就会让别人对你的文章阅读非常的有欲望,非常想要看看你对于这件事情的看法或者见解。

 

想要写好开头,其实就是要抓住阅读者的一个心理,勾起阅读者的好奇、探索、猎奇的心理,这样你的文章才会让人产生兴趣,平平无奇的开头会让人丧失阅读的动力,当然从上述几点我们不难看出,即便是你能有一个完美的开头,但是如果你没有强大的知识储备来证明你提出的观点那么还是不行的,所以平时我们一定要多看多读多学,这样才可以让你在撰写论文的时候越来越得心应手。

美国大选决战,留学政策走向如何?

当地时间11月3日,美国2020年大选日正式来临。

在新冠疫情持续、种族矛盾激化、党派之争越发激烈的背景下,这一次大选备受瞩目。

到底是现任总统、共和党总统候选人唐纳德·特朗普赢得连任,还是前副总统、民主党总统候选人乔·拜登成功入主白宫?

中国民众“观战”的热情似乎还挺高!对于准备赴美留学的家长和学生更关心的是,美国大选之后会对未来留学产生怎样的影响?

为了增加选票、收拢民心,大选前川普进行了一个大动作:在接近选举日公布H-1B限制命令,宣称“保护美国劳工”。而实际上,移民政策一直是川普竞选和施政宣传的重点之一。

01大选前的暴击:

20年来最严H-1B新政

H-1B大改革是出于政治动机而起,但是对于留学生的影响还是极大的!

在新规定中,最主要的影响有三个方面:

  • 大幅提高最低工资要求
  • 大幅限制申请人学历专业背景要求
  • 大幅缩短某部分申请人签证期限

大大提高申请H-1B的难度,三分之一的H-1B申请将被直接否决。

1.H1B签证申请者的工资必须要达到行业平均工资的45%-95%,相当于10万-20万。

△以加州San Jose地区的初级软件工程师为例

一般刚毕业的留学生都会按照Level 1初级水平工资申请,年薪则需要达到114,850美元(Level2标准)。

*对于毕业后留美工作的同学难度增加,但是更高学历对应更高的薪酬,研究生比本科生更容易获得H-1B。

2.绝对不能跨专业的工作来申请H-1B,且必须具有学士学位。

意味着以后有着经济学、工程学学位的外国人不能再使用H-1B在美国从事电脑程序员的工作。

*对于留美人来说是机遇:学历要求严格,大量非专业人士将空出H-1B名额。

3.缩短了合同工人的签证期限,由3年变至1年!

*无形对亚裔、印裔是一种打击,让留学生们在美国的就业之路越发艰难。

所以,H-1B也给我们申请中的学生一个警钟:专业到底选什么?就业岗位和兴趣专业该如何选择?高文凭获得高薪的机会更高吗?

02川普VS拜登:

大选结果对留学影响

今年留学圈可谓是不太平,一波又一波大事件闹得沸沸扬扬,美教育界也遭受了巨震。

还有几大美国教育界起义事件:#美国政府驱逐网课留学生#、#美国高校起诉川普政府#、#川普政府全面撤销留学生新规#、#美国取消超1000名中国留学生和研究人员签证#······

这样看,这些话题没一个小事儿,今年绝对是历史上的留学寒冬了。所以,我们关注的并不是“川普连任or拜登当选”的问题,而是关注美国下一任总统的留学政策如何。

从往届的执政党来看,民主党和共和党实施的留学政策本就不同,从而也对留学生群体产生了不同的影响。

特朗普代表的共和党和以奥巴马、拜登为代表的民主党对于留学及移民方面的基本立场和教育政策如下:

共和党:

1.签证期限由48个月改为12个月,签背景审查复杂;

2.拒绝H1B 加急;

3.留学生ICE新政;

4.维持七国禁止令;

5.STEM领域扩展;

6.OPT以及H1B签证政策难度增大;

7.各项签证及申请的费用上涨;

💨教育政策:偏向政府财政收支规律紧缩的状态,对教育经费的投入会较为保守。美国的大学也会以扩大招生规模来弥补财政空缺。

立场:驱逐非法移民和武装边境来排斥少数族裔。

民主党:

1、国际教育为外交服务,强调国际教育的重要性,同时对留学生进行资金支持;

2、提出国际教育是消除误解、增进友谊与了解的重要渠道;

3、推出了5年学生签证;

4、推出36个月STEM OPT;

5、允许H1B配偶(H4签证持有人)在美工作。

*在奥巴马政党执政期间,在美的中国留学生人数也达到了顶峰,H-1B签证通过率也是高达95.7%

💨教育政策:偏向照顾弱势团体政策,也会加大教师工会的支持,会对教育支出稍为慷慨些。因此,学校经费充足,在招生限制上会较为严苛。

基本立场:支持少数族裔权利、放松移民政策。

总结来说,大选结果川普VS拜登/共和党VS民主党,对于留学生的影响就是:民主党对于留学政策相对“宽松”,共和党则相对“紧缩”。

特朗普政府对华的签证政策总体会趋于严审,拜登则主张学术自由,放宽留学政策,可能会让留学生们看到了希望,所以大家也可以关注期待一下大选的结果了!

其实,中国留学生对美国教育领域的影响是非常大的,美国每年吸引超过100万名国际学生,为美国经济贡献了约410亿美元,其中有三分之一的国际学生来自中国,中国成为美国最大的国际学生来源国。换言之,美国的院校需要中国留学生。

受今年疫情影响,美国大学纷纷陷入了财政危机。当然,不管怎样你在留学途中需要学术论文代写,作业辅导代写。可以联系我们的1st客服!

北美留学代写重要的就是文章的原创度

越来越多的人都想要去国外留学,留学是很精彩的事情,主要的就是自己的阅历得到了提升,另外就是学识也得到了增长。在国外进行留学同时还能够锻炼自己的工作经验,也就是借鉴一些国外的工作的模式,从而才是能得到更好的锻炼。只是留学的时候,不仅仅是感觉到比较孤单的,更加重要的就是留学的过程中很多的事情要达到更好的地步,特别是在写作的时候,要完成这些作业也并不是容易的事情,因为并不是每个人都有文字天赋与语言方面的天赋。留学代写重要的是文章的原创度,文章不抄袭,而且逻辑性强,结构合理,那么这样的留学文章才是能够打高分。

留学代写的写手要如何写好这些文章

写作并不是容易的过程,如果寻找到了合适的写作的方式,那么在写作的时候,非但不出现任何的问题,而且将是感觉到非常的快乐。写手如果能够将写作当成一种乐趣,在写作的过程中,就不可能拥有任何方面的负担,而且能够认真细致地将文章写好。

写文书是一个资料整个的过程,写手写作的时候,首先的就是写好文章的提纲,然后根据文章的提纲进行创作,在写作的过程中,一定要注意文章的逻辑性,对于提出的论点,一定要进行论证的分析。而且文章不能够堆砌词语,因为是论文,所以不需要使用华丽的语言,而采用通俗的语言即可,但是文章的观点需要有特色,有个性,这样就更加容易通过。

留学代写的写手不要有拖延症

既然是写手,就需要把整个行业当成全职的行业来看待,如果是因为其他的一些事情耽搁了写作,这样的方法也是不正确的。毕竟留学生是急着需要这样的文章,所以写手们在写作的过程中,一定要谨慎行事,写作的时候,不能够出现任何的偏差,而且是在规定的时间内完成任务,其实这对于认真的写手来说,也并不是一件很难的事情。

留学代写的团队对于写作的订单要细心处理

既然是商业化的写作团队,就有许多的订单,面对订单较多的情况下,团队做好重要的分配工作,主要的就是每个写手都有擅长的一个方面,重要的就是看哪个写手擅长哪样的文章,这样进行合理地分配才是非常重要的,若是分配的不好,对自己的影响还是非常的大的。

留学代写重要的就是不能够有任何的抄袭,其实文章在交上去以后,有老师肯定要反馈这些信息,所以对于留学生来说,面对这些反馈的信息,写手能认真地对待,然后继续再进行一些新的修改,直到论文完全被导师满意为止。

其实对于这些写手来说,写作这些文章也是花费了不少的脑筋的,一般的团队都有专业的软件对文章的原创度进行检查,如果发现检查的过程中没有任何的问题,说明这样的文章还是高质量的文章之一。

 

留学生论文代写分享 方法论要怎么写?Methodology怎么写

留学生论文代写分享 方法论要怎么写?Methodology怎么写 记得我一开始遇到的情况就是:发现论文要写“研究方法”,“研究方法是个什么鬼?还要写一章,难道不是说明一下我研究用的什么方法几句话写出来就完事了吗?”。真让人头大!

事实上方法论或者说研究方法就是这篇论文最为核心最为核心的部分之一,也是科研务实的部分。方法论这一部分应该阐述“我这个研究是怎么进行的?我的实验具体是怎么做的?”也就是说要回答:你做这个研究的论证过程是怎么实现的?有什么具体操作的细节?在前人的基础上,你到底创新在了哪里?你在方法论这一章节的主要目的就是向读者呈现你的研究是通过哪些步骤,怎么得到结果的。

换句话说,我们写论文的逻辑是:总结前人→提出问题→提出猜想→论证猜想→分析论证的过程→得出结论。而提出猜想和论证猜想的部分就是Methodology这一章的核心内容。

如果别人要复现你的实验和研究,事实上就是照着你的方法论章节来完成的。也就是这一章就是对你原创的研究内容和实践的描述。甚至我建议你在开始一项研究的时候就应该直奔这个章节的思考,也就是最优先考虑你的方法论怎么写,甚至直接就从这一部分开始动笔。因为你准备开始写论文了,说明你肯定有一个具体的课题和初步的想法。那么假设你的研究方向没有错误(即你的想法肯定是没问题的,这样引言部分的逻辑线肯定能构建起来)。那么你肯定要从设计实验/设计论证方法的角度开始写,这部分有了之后才能够产生论证的结果,有了结果才能够对结果进行分析和讨论,最终得出结论,然后完成整篇论文。

从写作角度来说,方法论可能是最好写的一个章节,因为你不需要参考和分析别人的文献来构建一个逻辑,也不需要大量引用别人的描述去讨论以前发生的事情;你只要阐述你是怎么做的?这个研究你是怎么进行下来的?你的论证方法是什么?目的就是把这个过程原原本本客观地记录下来,有点像是大学里“实验报告”对实验步骤的描述。

例如你的研究是某种理论的研究,那么这里你就需要写你自己在这个理论上的完成贡献的实际内容,例如公示的推演、理论的推导等。如果你的研究存在实验、存在调查等,那么你在这一章节就要叙述你具体是如何做的实验,如何获得调查的结果,同时说明你最后可能得到的数据以及数据分析是如何做。这里要这样写的原因是为了让你的同行能够复现你的研究。为什么科学不同于迷信呢?就是因为科学做出的一切研究都应该是能够被复现、被验证和被推翻的。只有当你的研究方法写的足够详细,可以留下足够的细节让你的同行能够复现你的研究来验证你说的对不对时,你或者你的后来研究者才可能继续完善你的理论和研究,从而做出新的贡献。因此,如果你这里写的很混乱和模糊的话,你的研究就变成了不可复现的研究,那么这将会从可信度方面造成影响。

而在这一章节需要注意的点就是:你的方法论必须有一个清晰合理自洽的逻辑线和说明研究过程足够的细节。就和引言部分一样,引言部分是为了介绍这个故事的背景,引起读者的兴趣;而方法论里就要详细说明你是如何在故事中探索下去的;也就是和证明题一样,你现在有开头(研究领域的空白),有结果(研究达到的目标、贡献),那么方法论的逻辑线就是这中间你是如何从开头一步一步推导出的结果的?你要写清楚你的逻辑和每一步的细节。

我们都知道科研和创新之事不是一朝一夕轻易就能做出来的,也许我们在研究中走了很多弯路,我们在研究中做了一些实验证明了中间有的路走不通;当前我们不断地改进直到我们完成了研究的实践过程之后(即填补了这个领域的空白),我们撰写方法论的时候就应该把最后我们走得最正确的路按照逻辑关系写下来。也就是说你的写作中默认就把你研究正确的的方向和思路交代给读者:“我不解释为什么我选了这条路,但是我告诉你这条路是正确的,且前后逻辑关系是没问题的,看起来是一步一步包含所有细节地从理论最后得到了实验数据”。除此之外不要夹杂和这条逻辑线无关的内容。

因为方法论这一章节是你整篇论文的重中之重的部分之一,因此写完之后一定要多读几遍,最好找他人帮你再看看,力求保证你的思路逻辑是没问题的,中间的内容是可读懂没有歧义的,具体操作的步骤是足够详细可以被复现的。因为如果这部分中间的写作逻辑出现错误(例如中间A不能推出B却这样写或者有孤立的内容和你推出结果的逻辑线无关)或者描述不规范不清晰导致他人看不懂(用图内容描述不清、公式字母不知道指代、遗漏重要细节等),你这篇文章可以说就是存在硬伤的,就好比证明题中间把步骤遗漏或者写错了,所以建议大家谨慎对待。

留学生如何提高批判思维能力?

Essays, quizzes, presentations; Literature, History, Science-无论主题或要求是什么,Critical Thinking都是每个人都必须拥有的最丰富人生的技能之一。尤其是大学生,期望在他们整个大学成长期的过程中都能培养Critical Thinking能力。他们不仅帮助他们完成了要求,而且还极大地帮助了他们未来的职业并形成了见识广博的观点。

Critical Thinking技巧涉及旺盛的脑力劳动,以便对特定主题进行分析或做出判断。例如,在营销方面,专业的营销人员可能会通过确定目标人群和宣传此类产品的最佳手段,对如何认可其公司产品进行详细分析。

Critical Thinking是专业领域中至关重要的技能。因此,对于那些渴望在大学和未来职业中壮成长的大学生而言,当务之急是学习如何提高批判性。

开放头脑

在学习和掌握技能之前,学习者必须假设其基本原理。Critical Thinking首先是一种价值。尽管它不是人类原始时代的一种,但它很快就发展成为一项至关重要的生活技能。实际上,这是人类不仅生存,而且得以繁荣发展的因素之一,并达到了食物链的顶端。

如果不是Critical Thinking技能,人类就不会具有分析能力:知道如何使用工具,哪些动物和物体是威胁,等等。因此,Critical Thinking必须被视为一种价值。随着人的发展,他的Critical Thinking技巧也随之发展。

但是,如果人类从一开始就胸襟开阔,Critical Thinking就不会实现。开放的态度是接受与已知信息不同的新信息的能力。Critical Thinking涉及将新发现的信息与已经建立的知识相互联系。两者的融合产生了新的信息。因此,Critical Thinking取决于思维开阔才能正常运作。

同时,思想开放还取决于Critical Thinking。 开放思想有两个极端。 一方面,它具有灵活性:愿意毫无疑问地接受任何新信息。 听起来有悖常理,但思想开放有一定的局限性。 一个人不要太虚心,以至于他认为如果他坚信不疑,他可能会从建筑物的三楼飞出。

另一方面,心胸狭窄:由于当前信息已经足够,因此无法接受新信息。 这是由于对开放思想有严格的限制,导致人们对使用当前信息感到不舒服,以至于任何新信息都不舒服。 例如,某人可能每天早上喝一杯生鸡蛋已经生活了20年。

What? “Eating raw eggs is dangerous because they might have salmonella”? Damn scientists! I have been doing this for 20 years and I am still breathing! I know better than they do.

在这两种极端情况下,都没有Critical Thinking。 它的存在是对开放思想的适当限制。 Critical Thinking通过接受批评和判断来告诉新思想哪些是正确的。 这就是成就与灾难之间的区别,这就是为什么Critical Thinking也是一种价值的原因。 但是,这一切都始于开放思想,以学习如何提高Critical Thinking能力。

阅读有关Critical Thinking的教科书

当思想开放和Critical Thinking同时被追求时,下一步就是阅读有关如何提高Critical Thinking技能的材料。

作为研究的主题,它催生了大量的文学作品。有许多作者讨论了各种方法中的Critical Thinking。要确定哪个是该主题的权威指南,将是一项艰巨的任务。取而代之的是,它们应该都受到赞赏,并且实际上应该一起阅读,以便可以形成一个集体的,全面的心理数据库。

如果您想采取严谨的学术途径,虽然可能不会独自讨论这个主题,但您可能会发现一个无穷无尽的Critical Thinking图书馆。取而代之的是,在整个讨论过程中,有论述性教科书教授Critical Thinking,因为他们进行讨论的方法本身就是Critical Thinking的产物。

关于人文的书籍特别丰富,其教训不仅扩大了经验,而且也仅仅扩大了他们内心的思想,从而扩大并改善了读者的Critical Thinking。人们可以参考有关哲学,逻辑学和解释学的教科书。以下是一个很好的例子:

Philosopher Francis Bacon’s “Novum Organum”

在弗朗西斯·培根(Francis Bacon)撰写之前,获得新知识的最流行方法是演绎,即先建立普遍理论,然后在现象中观察。培根认为,推论可能是错误的,因为它可能导致理论与现实脱节。因此,作为对演绎的回应,他提出了一种新的演绎方法,即标题为“新生器官”。

培根的归纳不是从一般的理论开始,而是从观察我们环境中的现象开始。收集有关现象的推论,然后将其汇总在一起以创建非常强大的理论。培根意在归纳成为一般获得知识的新规范。如今,它以广为人知的科学方法在科学中最受欢迎。

“新生器官”将归纳法作为一种非常系统的获取知识的方法来教授,尽管该书本身于1620年出版,但如今仍然非常实用和实用。在收集理论所需数据的过程中,培养了Critical Thinking。使用Critical Thinking,您可以问:

  1. 哪些现象对我的学习很重要?
  2. 现象的哪些部分特别令人关注?
  3. 他们对现实总体上怎么说?

最后一部分要求在Critical Thinking中具有非常强的技巧。今天,哲学家和科学家在制定其理论时必须格外小心,尤其是当他们通过书籍和期刊条目传播它们时。如果任其发展,他们可能会误导人们去做危险的事情。这就是为什么存在同行评议的原因-仅在Critical Thinking失败的地方,其他人就有Critical Thinking。

对于那些想要不那么严厉和严格的学术书籍的人来说,还有大量关于Critical Thinking的书籍的清单,它们通常使用一种更易于理解的语言。以下是其中一本书籍。

Rolf Dobelli’s “The Art of Thinking Clearly”

多贝利从经济学家的角度写了他的书。 尽管如此,它仍然为人们提供了重要的实践建议。

他通过收集人们在日常生活中犯下的100种常见逻辑谬论来做到这一点。 每个谬论的讨论都始于它如何发生以使人们更好地建立联系的轶事,然后是对谬论是什么以及它是如何有害的易于理解的解释。

尽管语气简单,但它可以帮助清除人的易患病倾向,从而提高个人的Critical Thinking能力。 通常,我们会受到冲动和情感的引导,这可能会使我们犯下一些严重的错误。 首先,我们将重点放在理性和逻辑上,从而允许我们运用Critical Thinking,并从那里着手从情况中寻求最佳解决方案。

通读

从讨论中着重于Critical Thinking的教科书,您必须扩展到其他方面,而不是一般的书。 无论是指导性的还是娱乐性的,都请阅读。 在不知不觉中,您已经在形成Critical Thinking技能。

这似乎非常广泛,确实如此,这是有充分理由的。 读教如何提高Critical Thinking能力的教科书还不够。 如果不使用它们有什么好处?

同时,书籍本身也教授如何提高Critical Thinking能力。 读书时,您会接触到新的信息。 但是,取决于您是否实际接受它们。 在这里,您可以充分利用Critical Thinking。 新信息并不代表正确的信息。 信息本质上是中立的,应该始终对真理进行审查。 是真的吗 无论答案如何,它都可以联系到哪些真理或谎言?

提出并分享您自己的见解

开明的另一个极端是极端怀疑主义。它与传统主义的相似之处在于,它对开放思想提出了非常严格的限制,但以这种方式,似乎没有一种信念可以满足任何需求。从实际意义上讲,这不可能。极端怀疑论者不能说没有真正的信仰,如果那是真的,极端怀疑论者就不是真正的信仰吗?

渴望Critical Thinking技能的学习者必须知道的是,Critical Thinking已经超越了系统化的思维方式。Critical Thinking是一种价值,是生活的重要方面。如果我们尝试仅根据教科书上的内容来发展Critical Thinking技能,那么具有讽刺意味的是,我们最终将其视为传统主义的信仰。充其量,Critical Thinking是一个动态的,不断变化的理想。它的流动性使它不能完全由几个来源确定的结构和定义来固定。

每个人都为改进Critical Thinking的努力做出了贡献。在我们思考的每个醒着时刻,甚至当我们在最不相关的事物之间建立联系时,我们都会在Critical Thinking库中添加更多内容。也许创造是对任何活动以及分享这种创造最有生产力的贡献。所以,高举你的东西!当您有激烈的想法甚至“尤里卡”的想法时,请不要害怕分享。

每当您想学习如何提高Critical Thinking能力时,都应该记住这一点:这不是一项单一的努力,而是一种协作的努力。